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Computer-Based Exams: The Future of the Education Sector


The steep rise in COVID-19 cases is a global challenge for industries and sectors, and education is no exception. Institutions that believed the disruption to mitigate soon are now rightfully concerned about students’ distress, delay in examinations, results and academic sessions. They are taking several approaches to bring continuity to their curricula and educational sessions. While some have canceled their remaining exams, a majority of universities are contemplating shifting to computer-based testing.


Often, institutes don’t see the bigger picture, factoring in minor challenges that accompany online examinations. Though the adoption of online examination may have been gradual, the ongoing global disruption must expedite the process of embracing technology by doing away with unfounded concerns about online exams. Many universities in India have already undertaken the transition. Given the social, financial and geographical diversity among students at Mumbai University and its affiliated colleges, University officials consider various options, including online and physical exams, for college and varsity exams that have not occurred due to the lockdown.

An official statement by Nagpur University reads:

“We are contemplating holding (a) 30% objective, 70% descriptive question paper. (A) The thought is also being given to the possibility of holding examinations online.”

In a meeting held between Vice-Chancellors (VC) of different varsities and Delhi Chief Minister (CM) and his deputy, VCs apprised the CM of their decision to conduct the remaining exams online. The Delhi Technological University (DTU) has also decided to run all its end-term examinations for theory subjects online. The exams would be conducted through an Artificial Intelligence(AI)-enabled platform with online invigilation, thus maintaining its integrity.  

There has been a discernible rise in computer-based testing, indicating that institutions are likely to continue with the online mode of exams even after the end of the COVID-induced lockdown, which underlines the advantages associated with computer testing tools.

What is a Computer-Based Test?

Computer testing refers to delivering assessments with computers as an alternative to pen and paper. Such a test can be conducted online through the use of the internet or a computer-aided facility. It is a time-efficient and effective means of hosting large-scale online examinations concurrently. It enables educational institutions to evaluate candidates’ performance quickly irrespective of their geographical location. Some of its features are online invigilation, randomization of questions and simultaneous management of students.

Assessments have been in use for the selection process for a very long time. Before the digital era, evaluators used traditional approach-based tests. With internet technology seeping into different aspects of life and computing gadgets becoming an imperative necessity, can online assessments be far behind! The computer-based test has some potential benefits when compared with traditional assessment methods. Computer testing finds its use in various sectors such as education, government and corporate sector. All the stakeholders involved in the web-based exam format, such as the assessors, participants, proctors, administrators, selectors, etc. benefit from this medium.

The need for conducting computer-based examinations has rightly increased, given the current situation. There are serious concerns about educational continuity, with universities and schools being shut indefinitely, causing a delay in examination results. The ubiquitousness of several computer-based examination systems must encourage institutions to shift to online examinations. Computer-based exams (CEB) provide auto-grading and section-wise feedback. They provide easy-to-use and reliable assessment results using cutting-edge technological innovation. For instance, videos or slideshows to assess medical students during surgery or virtual simulations to evaluate social skills have revolutionized the way exams are being conducted. The corporate sector also emphasizes using computer-based tests to identify the best candidate for available job roles. It simplifies the first level of screening when there aren’t enough applicants. The online CBT exam also comes in handy for shortlisting candidates with adequate skills and talent, selecting the right candidates for a face-to-face interview.

Application of Computer Testing:

Web-based exams can be utilized for academic assessments or during a mass hiring process wherein assessment tests play an integral part in the screening /elimination process. Computer testing is also used by the management to assist employees in their career advancement. By understanding the candidates’ strengths and weaknesses, the learning and development team can devise adequate workforce development training programs. A well-informed workforce keeps the business sustainable and competitive.

 The Adoption of Computer-Based Exams

There has been a gradual adoption of computer-based exams, with the last two decades witnessing the most profound shift. One reason is that  computer testing continues to offer numerous benefits compared to pen-and-paper tests. Some of  its advantages are:

  •       Increased delivery
  •       Administration and scoring efficiency
  •       Improved test security
  •       Consistency and reliability
  •       Faster response rate

-(Riku, Laurif and Ari, 2001)

The advancement in educational technology delivered ample opportunities to measure complex reasoning, which could not be gauged via traditional exams. (Bodmann and Robinson, 2004)2. Furthermore, computer-based assessments established a link between observation and interpretation. These enabled institutions to analyze a student’s performance based on actionable items to measure the aptitude to make a fair comparison. (Pellegrino, Chudowsky and Glaser, 2001)

Students’ Experience

Numerous researches conducted over the last two decades indicate students’ responses to the computer-based examination system. The consensus reflects positive feedback.

  • The National University of Singapore had introduced computer-based test software back in 2004. Lim et al., in 2006, conducted an online survey to understand how the final year MBBS students have adapted to using the computer testing software.  Out of the 1023 students, most first-time online test-takers found the test easy—24% of the students who found it challenging, adjusted with time.
  • Karadeniz researched in 2009 to study the influence of paper, web, and mobile-based assessments on students’ success. The report revealed that students had a positive outlook toward web and mobile-based assessments due to its ease of use and comprehensive and instant feedback. Paper-based tests emerged to be the least favorite.

Teachers’ Experience

A majority of researchers have much emphasized the impact of the ed-tech revolution on students and educational institutions. Teachers, however, have remained mostly at the periphery of decision making. A study was undertaken in Pakistan to understand the teachers’ opinions on computer-based vs. paper-based exams. The study revealed the following:

  • The Higher Education Commission, Pakistan, should train university teachers to conduct computer-based examinations to evaluate large groups of students in a shorter time frame.
  • Computer-based exams save time. 
  • Computer-based tests facilitate students to develop their understanding, thus improving their grade-point average (GPA).

Types of Computer-Based Tests

Computer-based test software allows institutions to conduct large-scale online examinations without compromising the credibility of the results. A stellar online examination platform can feature various test types, such as:


Advantages of Computer-Based Testing

Computer testing tools have various advantages over traditional examination methods. From conducting exams to delivering reports, computer-based exams have made the examination process smoother than ever. Computer-based tests offer multiple benefits to candidates and administrators in administering, grading and scaling-up the process. Listed below are some benefits of computer testing.

Administration of Multiple Assessments

Learners can partake in several assessments throughout the e-learning program. Instructors can correlate the data collected from these evaluations with specific standards (can be regional or national) for evaluating learners based on these standards. Data gathered over the period will be useful for program instructors to identify key focus areas for improvement. Such data is also exportable from various learning management systems into a database where data analysis for evaluation and research purposes occurs.

Dynamic and Personalized tests

Computer-based tests are easy to be personalized to students. Instructors can change the difficulty level of each question based on the learner’s prior responses. The web-based exam experience can be taken a notch up using video applications that enable the instructor to reach out to individual learners and offer them oral assessments. Students can also use apps that allow them to share their questions, opinions, etc.

Instant Grading

Multiple choice or True/False questions form the core of select-response tests. Such assessments can be graded immediately, enabling candidates to analyze their performance and allowing instructors to change their approach based on the data garnered from computer testing. Instant grading allows instructors to focus on those points, which are crucial for learning. Online assessment, depending on its functionality, can prove useful in terms of shedding some light on potential areas of improvement for students.

Extensions for Open-ended Assessments

For most instructors, grading open-ended assessments (projects/ portfolios that use rubrics ) is a time-consuming activity. Online rubric extensions, such as Google Sheets add-ons, enable automated scoring rubrics that provide insightful feedback to both teachers and students.

Vertically Aligned or Horizontally Aligned Tests

Vertically aligned tests are used to assess the same knowledge at varying levels of difficulty. Horizontally aligned tests are useful for comparing learners against each other (used mainly in filtering out candidates for scholarships), teaching roles, and more. Computer testing provides raw test scores that learners eventually receive either in the form of a percentile score or a letter grade.

Uncovers New Aspects of Thinking

Gamification can reveal underlying aspects of a student’s problem-solving skills and help instructors measure their higher-order thinking skills. By having students play computer-based tests that focus on digital learning games and evaluating their rationale behind making game-based decisions, online program instructors can personalize and tailor future learning experiences to each student.

Helpful for Candidates with Special Needs

Computer testing is useful for candidates with special needs for its features, such as text-to-voice and voice-to-text applications, screen reader, magnification, Braille keyboard and similar tools. Using these tools, candidates can take up assessments more conveniently than ever before.


LMSs generate lots of back-end data, such as duration of the task, number of logins and number of posts correlated with an individual’s performance-based data to keep a tab on his/her progress in an online course. Moreover, student-centric analytics can provide learners with in-depth insights into their performance and notify them about reminders such as assignment due dates and early warnings ( if their performance is not up to the mark). Such actionable insights can enable students to focus on areas that need improvement before the final test. Instructors can utilize analytics for measuring course effectiveness, tracking student engagement and accuracy percentage. This way, they can use insights to introduce new interventions.


There are various security features inherent in the computer-based testing to ensure that test integrity is maintained.

Anywhere, Anytime

Unlike the traditional examination system, students need to commute to physical test centers when appearing for an Online CBT Exam. CBT has enabled students to select an exam slot as per their convenience. When social distancing and restricted traveling are globally accepted norms, conducting online exams from any corner of the world has given hope to universities.

Saves Time and Resources

The time consumed in creating question papers, registration, arranging supplies and evaluation can be avoided with online exams as it automates the entire process. Additionally, there is significantly lower consumption of resources, such as stationery, invigilators, or transport facilities.


Since the computer-based examination system offers a robust platform, it can support a large number of exams. A stellar computer-based exam software can support over 1,00,000 proctored tests and can be further scaled without spending significantly.


This eliminates the scope of human error and the hassle of allotting evaluation duties to teachers. Multiple-choice questions can be auto-graded easily, thereby helping institutions to churn out real-time reports. There is also a considerable saving in terms of the time spent evaluating a large number of answer sheets.

How is Computer-Based Test Done?

All the methods involved in a paper-based test are initialized digitally via computer-based examination systems, whether for student learning  evaluation or candidate assessment during campus hiring. The online CBT exam system can register and organize a vast candidate pool through a booking system. The examination system enables the live monitoring of examinees’ screens from the farthest locations through remote proctoring solutions. Furthermore, the system allows quick access to test results in real-time with data analytics.

How Does Computer-Based Assessment Software Work?


Conducting online examinations is not as tedious as it seems. It’s pretty easy to run a web-based computerized exam on an online assessment platform. It’s the user-friendliness of an online CBT platform that makes it a holistic online exam solution provider. The computer-based assessment process consists of the following steps:

Step 1: Set-Up the Exam

The first step is to upload lots of questions. A robust online examination software allows you to upload multiple types of problems. It also allows for integration with a learning management system (LMS).

Step 2: Invite Test-Takers

Exam authorities then upload bulk student data, thereby saving on significant time spent gathering and updating candidates’ details. Invitation emails are sent to students, post which they can select a suitable exam slot.

Step 3: Authorize and Proctor Tests

ID-based authentication, AI-based live proctoring, screen recording and browsing tolerance are some features that eliminate impersonation and malpractices, thus making the results as credible as traditional pen-and-paper tests.

Step 4: Real-Time Results

A computer-based assessment software provides real-time results that can be customized and shared in PDF or HTML format.

Step 5: Group-Level Analytics

In addition to individual reports, thorough data analysis provides useful group-level insights that can be used in the future.

Click Here to Know How to Conduct Computer-based Exams Seamlessly


Candidate Authentication

Before the exam, candidates need to show an id proof, click a live picture on the webcam and submit their admit card. This process is followed by providing a one-time password received by students via email. The three-step authentication negates any possibilities of impersonation.

Navigation Control

A world-class computer-based assessment software creates a highly secure environment for test-takers by disabling background apps, browsers, or screen sharing. The candidates are barred from browsing outside the exam window and are warned of repercussions if caught.

Online Proctoring

Online proctoring ensures that candidates adopt no unfair means to clear an exam. There are three kinds of proctoring:

Auto Proctoring:

AI-based examination platforms monitor the candidate’s live feed and auto-flags various cases that jeopardize exams' sanctity.

Live Proctoring:

A human proctor monitors the live feed, communicates with the students for any queries, and can pause or resume a test.


The unlimited video recording storage allows recording of a proctored session for reviewing later. Navigation to a specified time in the recording is also possible.

Business Impact

How Mercer | Mettl empowered IIM Bangalore to conduct secure online proctored exams?

About the Institution

Founded in 1973, the Indian Institute of Management Bangalore (IIMB) is an acclaimed public business school (B-school). The institute offers a comprehensive range of post-graduate, doctoral and executive programs. Besides its notable academic courses, the institute facilitates research, provides consulting services, conducts seminars, educational conferences, and publishes insightful journals.


  • Robust platform

    IIMB needed a dynamic end-to-end examination platform that was easily accessible and location-agnostic for learners and examiners. The B-school wanted a platform that would support multiple question types and exam formats without any operational hassles.
  • Preserve the academic integrity

    Since the exams were online and attempted remotely by candidates, the B-school’s requirement was a robust anti-cheating setup, with an online invigilation mechanism to ensure candidates attempting the test couldn’t resort to any illicit means.


After careful consideration, IIMB was recommended a suite of Mercer | Mettl’s online technologies:

  •       Online Examination Platform
  •       Mettl’s Proctoring as a Service (MPaaS)

Both these value propositions were aligned with IIMB’s existing requirement, and its future needs to enable blended learning.


  • The institute witnessed a drastic reduction in cheating cases after shifting to Mercer | Mettl’s examination tools.
  • With Mercer | Mettl’s automated result feature, the results were generated instantaneously.
  • The institute was able to offer credible certificates to deserving students after evaluating the actual performance.

How Mercer | Mettl Can Help?




Get the answers to the most frequently asked questions about computer testing software.

We have listed the answers to the most typical concerns in the FAQ section:

Which is better: paper-based test or computer-based test?

Online CBT exams are better than traditional exams for these reasons:

  • While the paper-based test involves a long, tedious process of conducting exams and evaluating results, the computer-based test delivers fast, reliable and error-free assessment solutions. 
  • Limited resources are needed in web-based exams as compared to traditional tests. Participants can quickly appear for the test through the internet, so it doesn’t require a dedicated faculty and staff.
  • A dedicated exam center, adequate faculty and stationery, seating arrangements, etc. are prerequisites for conducting a pen-paper test.
  • Computer testing enables educators to conduct grading for online tests in a much easier way. In contrast, the evaluation process in a traditional exam system is time-consuming and prone to error.or.
  • In computer-based tests, the recruiter can send emails regarding the assessment to millions of registered candidates instantly. The web-based exam is a flexible and secure medium, for it can provide each student with a set of random questions on the same exam pattern to prevent cheating in the exams.
  • Computer-based tests are easily accessible by students with disabilities, whereas specially-abled students have limited access to conventional education and assessments.
  • Web-based exams allow test-creators to enrich the content by adding videos, images, audio clips, PDFs, etc. The use of visual elements adds interactivity to the learning experience of visual learners.
  • Online CBT exams come integrated with built-in functions to curb cheating, such as browser lockdown, key disabling features, proctoring plug-ins, and prevent students from indulging in any unfair means. In the pen-and-paper test, the chances are high that students could indulge in cheating without any difficulty.

How are computer-based tests monitored?

Through online exam proctoring: computer testing becomes highly effective with the inclusion of remote proctoring. The test taker is monitored via a webcam, mic and access to the candidate’s screen during the test.

Can participants cheat in online CBT exams?

Usually, test-takers can cheat when taking web-based exams by browsing through sites for answers while keeping the exam open on the main tab. They typically do this by copy-pasting the content into their browser to seek solutions to the problems. Another way participants indulge in cheating is with text messages.  They can reach out to other candidates either by sharing the test or asking them for the solutions. They can even send screenshots/photos of the test using smartphone cameras. In light of the situation, Mercer | Mettl’s suite of remote proctoring technologies will ensure cheating-free exams.

How do you conduct an online CBT Exam?

To conduct a secure online exam, start by selecting the type of online assessment you want to distribute, mapping the examinees who’ll sit for the exam, and sending out email links with exam details to the candidates. The examinees can click on the email link or use login credentials for taking the exam online.

What is the purpose of an online examination system?

One should keep in mind these objectives while developing computer-based tests:

  • To conduct exams effortlessly
  • To provide candidates with the flexibility of taking the exams at any time of the day and reduce exam anxiety amongst candidates
  • To keep cheaters at bay
  • To enable exam conducting agencies to safeguard the critical data related to assessment questions and examinees.
  • To lighten the administrative burden by managing and running CBT exams online. 

What is an online CBT mode?

A CBT test is delivered using computers through the internet on particular examination platforms. It provides the time and location flexibility to candidates and assessment conducting agencies, hence reducing the time, cost, effort and expense included in the assessment process.

How are computer-based tests proctored?

This process is referred to as web proctoring wherein the test taker is specifically monitored using a webcam, access to the person’s screen during the test, and his/her mic. Web proctoring is of three types: Recorded proctoring, live online exam proctoring and automated proctoring.

How to attempt computer-based tests?

Students new to computer testing may experience few difficulties in taking computer-based tests. If you are not familiar with web-based exams, you should understand the necessary steps before entering the CBT exam.

Listed below are the steps for attempting computer testing:

  • Click on the “exam’’ icon to start your assessment.
  • After clicking it, a test window will open. The opening page will ask you to enter such details as a username and passcode for the exam. The exam board has already given you this information. Fill up every required space with the information that you are asked about. Click on the tab ‘’NEXT’’ to proceed further with the exam.
  • The next page will be opened. This page will include test duration, types of questions and things to remember before attempting the questions.
  • You’ll find a call-to-action button that says “START EXAM”. Clicking on it will open a new page that includes the initial questions of your test. As you move up through the pages, you will notice questions in a proper sequence.
  • There will be a timer bar at the top of the test window indicating the remaining time for the exam.
  • Each question will require respondents to choose one option from multiple choices, or there will be ample space for writing explanatory answers, in case of subjective questions.
  • There is a ‘’SUBMIT’’ button at the end of each question. After answering the questions, click on this button to submit your responses. If you don’t submit your responses, you won’t be given marks for these answers.
  • You can use the NEXT PAGE” and “PREVIOUS PAGE” arrows for moving to the next and previous pages. There can also be a straight bar that lists all the page numbers for you to access a specific page by clicking it.
  • It depends on the test creator, whether there will be one question per page or more. The point is you shouldn’t invest the time on a question that you don’t know the answer to; leave that and get on to the next one. You must first attempt all the easier questions and address the complex problems at the end of the test if time allows.
  • It may be the case that you have reached the last page of the online test but skipped a few questions. The asterisk (*), a star-shaped symbol, denotes the number of questions that have not been attempted on some pages. You can go back to those pages to try these questions.
  • At the bottom of the last page of the exam, there will be a “FINISH” button. Click on the tab to finish the assessment after completing all the questions. In some exams, results come out as soon as you hit the finish button. But in some cases, your scores may also be sent via email or postal address.


  • Riku, S., Lauri, M., & Ari, K. (2001). Fully automatic assessment of programming exercises, ACM Digital Library. 
  • Bodmann, S. M. and Robinson, D. H. (2004). Speed and Performance Differences among Computer-Based and Paper-Pencil Tests. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31(1), 51 – 60.
  • Pellegrino, Chudowsky, Naomi, Glaser (2001). Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. The National Academies Press, 379
  • Lim, E., CH., Ong, B., KC., Wilder-Smith, E., PV., Seet, R., CS. (2006). Computer-based Versus Pen-and-paper Testing: Students’ Perception. Ann Acad Med Singapore, 35 (9), 599-603.
  • Ayo C. K. (2007). The Prospects of e-Examination Implementation in Nigeria. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE2007; 8: Article 10.
  • Karadeniz, S. (2009). The impacts of paper, web and mobile-based assessment on students’ achievement and perceptions. Scientific Research and Essay, 4(10): 984 – 991.
  • Samson Ejim(2017). Computer-Based Examination System With Multi-Factor Authentication And Message Notification Features. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University
  • Jamila M., Tariqb R.H., Shamic PA. (2012). Computer-Based Vs. Paper-Based Examinations: Perceptions of University Teachers. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology (TOJET), volume 11, issue 4

Easily Conduct Computer-Based Tests with Our Online Testing Platform

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Originally published August 13 2020, Updated December 17 2020

Megha Singh

Written by

A writer at heart, Megha has been in the content industry for 4 years. Starting her career from print, her journey spans across IT, legal and consulting industries. She has been associated with Mercer | Mettl as Assistant Manager, Content Marketing for 2 years.

About This Topic

Online assessments, also known as digital or virtual assessments, are computer-based exams. Online assessments use information technology to empower test-takers to take assessments from anywhere, anytime. Online assessments are widely used by educational institutions and corporations.

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