Mettl’s assessments have been the biggest filter in our recruitment process. Their platform has helped us reach out to a higher volume our applicant numbers. Mettl constantly keeps innovating on their products and tries to introduce a new aspect to everything.
We are rapidly moving toward digitization. And a lot of physical processes have gone virtually remote as industries across the world capitalize on digital technologies to navigate across seemingly never-ending challenges. One significant sector amplifying this potential shift is the education examination sector. Countless universities and institutes across the globe have embraced online solutions for exams with certitude and optimism to fuel continuity. Concurrently, they are also seizing this opportunity to diffuse their reach and drive connectedness in ways more than one.
But, at the core of this new reality is the safe environment in which online exams must take place. Hence, the very administration of online exams has led to the rise of one revolutionary technology- online remote proctoring.
Online remote proctoring is the act of invigilating an online exam from any location to clamp down on aberrant behavior or cheating instances and ensure a cheat-free assessment environment. A remotely proctored exam is administered by experienced human proctors, an AI Algorithm, or both to maintain any examination process’s integrity.
It is responsive, flexible, sustainable, and powerful enough to overcome the uncertainties posed by any unforeseen disruption.
Trust us when we say remote proctoring is like your sturdy bubble wrap that can assuredly seal you from those rough bumps often associated with challenges in online exams. Its ubiquitous applications and advantages have transformed inundated arguments and queries concerning infrastructure, access, cost, support, accuracy, credibility, and relevance in online exams.
Majority of Education boards turn to technology to streamline the exam process as they improve the evaluation process and meet the challenges posed by an increasing number of students.
But we’re just scratching the surface here. There is so much more about the idea of adopting this state-of-the-art invigilation technology to eliminate any form of remotely online proctored exam cheating instance. Hence, as online remote proctoring experts, we are here to detail out all the tools and advice you need to explore its intricacies.
Whether you’re new to the proctoring ecosystem or are still contemplating the integrity of the service, this go-to guide is an excellent source of information on administering remotely proctored exams. Various practical tips, examples from some highly informative case studies and discussions on best practices for approaching online remote proctoring with your goals will help you overcome real and perceived challenges in administering remote online proctored exams.
From assuaging concerns about the fundamentals of online remote proctoring to discovering facts beyond the commonly known wisdom, this go-to guide on online remote proctoring will introduce you to a multitude of remote online proctoring possibilities.
Let’s dive in.
Let us begin with the basic need of leveraging remote proctoring, which is cheating. Academic dishonesty is a breach of ethics. And it is quite prevalent, despite being a deplorable activity.
A popular 2012 Josephson Institute’s Center for Youth Ethics Report, which had more than 23,000 high school students participating in the survey across the US, revealed that more than half of those surveyed admitted to cheating on a test.
Hence, it reaffirms that ethical lapses, such as exam cheating, happen more often than we would like to believe.
But along with the inclination to cheat, the ways students cheat on exams are equally alarming. The privilege of accessing information technology (IT) has undeniably empowered students to devise smarter ways to outwit proctors while taking examinations. As digital disruption gives new forms to cheating in remote proctoring, knowing the creative ways in which students cheat can help you identify the right solution that mitigates genuine cheating concerns.
Therefore, this chapter’s main objective is to comprehend and elucidate ten unique ways in which students attempt to cheat in remote online proctored exams. Besides, we will also uncover ways remote proctoring technologies help you prevent it.
Let’s get to know a little more in detail how this happens:
Making someone else take the test seems far-fetched or an idea borrowed from the plot of the hit TV series ‘Gossip Girl’ or ‘Suits’. But when exams are given remotely online, the chances of a candidate using an impersonator to take the exam on his/her behalf is exceptionally high. There is no need to use any cheating devices; instead, give all login details to a brainiac and ask it to appear for the test.
If, as an educator or exam administrator you’re of the opinion that impersonation can happen only before the exam; you’re in for a surprise. Impersonation cases can also happen after the exam has begun, wherein the students passes the authentication process but leaves the system midway for the proxy to step in to finish and submit the exam.
The US Department of Education Office of Inspector General’s Report of 2013 indicates that an estimated US$187 million in federal student aid was likely acquired fraudulently by rings of criminals between 2009–2012, using fake identities of test-takers.
When taking exams from remote locations, candidates use multiple monitors with friends/families simultaneously accessing the exam questions and providing answers on a different screen. This type of online exam cheating involves using screen sharing and mirroring to cheat in tests.
Ever heard of remote proctoring cheating using cameras? Organizations conducting high-stakes online exams such as CAT, MAT and other competitive examinations were recently quoted saying that test-takers had been using tiny-sized, practically undetectable devices for cheating. Some are smart enough to employ calculators that store formulas and other data, enabling them to score high on the exams.
Despite lining up anti-cheating rules in online exams, cheating using smartphones is extremely common. Students use mobile phones to store answers, text friends to find answers or take photos of question papers through their connected devices.
Students often misuse easy access to the internet and social media tools for cheating during remotely proctored online exams. They tend to browse the internet, log onto unauthorized websites during the test, paste the questions onto the URL and find the best solution from which they plagiarize.
In online exams, cheating masterminds often use hard drives, USBs, Micro SDs and other external smart devices that are easy to conceal and challenging to detect. Before or during the test, test-takers plug them for easy use, making them standard accessories to online cheating.
One of the most common ways of cheating in online exams is having family members or friends help the test-takers from proximity. These helpers are stationed in the same room but away from the webcam or behind the screen. They either write the answers on a placard or whisper it softly to help the test-taker key in the right answers.
Students tempted to cheat on online tests often try to outdo the system by purposely logging themselves out of the exam. They cite excuses such as intermittent internet connectivity or power cuts to cheat for the answers.
Some wrongdoers will always find a way to bend the system and get away with cheating. This includes releasing a question paper before the exam at your own accord or asking an applicant that has already taken the same test for the question paper. Cheating while copying from another student is one thing but allowing someone else to copy from your test also accounts as cheating. Hence, aiding and abetting cheating is another way students tend to cheat in exams.
One will often find a few miscreants who will leave no stone unturned to cheat in exams. And unfortunately, if the exam’s fairness is compromised, the result and the evaluation reports would be inaccurate, wrongly reflecting the students’ actual abilities and institutions’ integrity.
Hence, it is not only prudent but also vital to dissuade students from cheating in online exams.
Remote proctoring technology has made the advent of online exams possible by preventing these very instances of cheating.
Right from the extent to the type of technology used- there have been massive advancements in how proctoring technology has enabled a smoother and disruption-free functioning of online exams. The advent of AI (Artificial Algorithm) itself has enabled the pedagogy to closely monitor test-takers’ actions and conduct exams with ease. When test-takers know innovative technologies such as remote proctoring solutions are continually monitoring and analyzing their behaviors and activities, they are more mindful of their actions and refrain from attempting to trick the system.
From eliminating logistical hassles, streamlining invigilation and assessment processes to negating issues of academic integrity, remote proctoring has helped enhance the overall efficiency of the examination and invigilation process.
Keeping the above context in mind, our next chapter explores proctoring technology in detail. It also elucidates a compelling story of a significant replacement waiting to recreate the same proctoring experience as offline without raising concerns over safety or faith.
Before we get into understanding the remote proctoring technology and its feature in detail, let’s try to break-down the physical examination process and then drive similarity between the online and offline proctoring process.
A traditional exam invigilation is where an invigilator conducts exams at physical testing centers. There is a fixed date, time and venue for the exam wherein the invigilator and the applicants are face-to-face during the supervision.
Now online remote proctoring as explained in our introduction is akin to an actual classroom setting.
Now let us take a step-by-step approach to understand how remote proctoring technology stimulates physical invigilation in an offline examination process.
And with each component, we’ll compare online with face-to-face invigilation to elucidate how virtual proctoring ensures the same accountability levels.
What happens when an applicant goes to a test center to take the test?
He/she has to corroborate his/her candidature with a valid ID card, such as a social security number or Aadhaar card. Further, to complete the registration process, the applicant must be authenticated against the previously submitted registration record to verify that the registered person is the genuine applicant and not an impersonator.
Now, in a virtual proctored exam the identification process is no different.
A 3-point candidate authentication system is then initiated once the test-taker clicks on the test link. This ensures that a genuine test-taker is taking the exam.
In a center-based exam, once a test-taker’s authentication process is complete and approved, they are requested to take their designated seats, and the exam commences. During the exam, the physical invigilators closely monitors each test-taker’s behavior and the environment. They are incredibly vigilant and scout for even the minutest of discrepancies, from start to finish. The invigilators pay attention to every detail, ensuring the exam session’s validity while eliminating any cheating instance or the possibility of error to enable a smooth exam-taking experience.
Now, how are online exams/tests proctored during online invigilation?
i) The Test-Taker’s Behavior Monitoring:
An examiner sitting far away can still monitor every action and activity of the test-taker on its screen in either of the following ways:
Live proctoring, much like an actual classroom setting is where an online proctor invigilates the examinees in real-time through its screen, either through a one-to-many view or a one-to-one view. In case the proctor finds anything suspicious during the live online proctoring session, they can intervene in real-time. For instance, Mercer | Mettl provides a two-way live chat option that enables the invigilators and the test-takers to chat with one another to allay suspicions or queries during a live proctored exams.
In case the exam administrators feel the need to supervise proctors, companies such as Mercer | Mettl can enable the Super Proctor feature during the proctoring drive.
Super Proctoring provides end-client visibility in a live remote proctoring drive. One or multiple Super Proctors can supervise the proctoring exam drive and ensure efficient proctoring. This assures the examination heads that the examination process was not compromised by the proctors supervising the examination process.
Recorded proctoring does not require monitoring of test-takers in real-time. The screen-share and audio-video feeds of the examinees are recorded throughout the test and an authorized proctor or an official is given access to scans the recordings while reading for red flags or any suspicious activities. The system is free from schedules and professional limitations, but human intervention is still needed for a review, making it comparatively expensive and unscalable. This type of remote proctoring is also known as a webcam proctored test.
Automated proctoring, is a form of online invigilation that is automated by AI (Artificial Intelligence) to prevent, detect and gather evidence of any unusual activity during online exams. The auto proctoring system considers a human proctor’s observations using an algorithm and replicates the way humans’ process information to make the right decisions.
ii) The Test-Taker’s Screen and System Monitoring:
Now this was all about candidate behavior that is visible on the video. What about the on-screen activity? If you remember, Chapter 1 of the guide book detailed the unique ways students cheat in online exams, which included exploiting navigation privileges or using online resources for cheating on-screen.
The best way of preventing candidates from gaining an unfair advantage online is by activating a navigation control feature called the Secure Exam Browser. This next-generation anti-cheating lockdown browser helps to host a test in a highly secure and safe environment by preventing on-screen cheating. Once students begin their online proctored exam, their screen is put in a kiosk mode that prevents:
This makes it impossible for the candidate to cheat on-screen. Subsequently, during virtual proctoring, everything is recorded for future references, accessible only to authorized personnel at any time.
iii) The Test-Taker’s Environment Monitoring:
Now that we’ve monitored candidates’ behaviors and their activities on screen, we’ve not yet granularly verified their test-taking environment. What if the test-taker has hidden some chits nearby, or a family member is sitting behind the computer screen ready with a list of answers. How will the proctor come to know if he/she doesn’t check the environment? Here’s how:
Virtual proctoring uses a technology that involves employing a camera that can capture a 360-degree view of the room or venue where the test-taker is attempting the exam to prevent remote proctoring cheating. The test-taker is provided with either a 360-degree video capturing webcam that he/she attaches to his/her computer screen. Or, the test-taker has a headgear with a camera attached to capture his/her gaze and observe things that he/she is looking at during remote proctoring assessment. Both these cameras allow the live proctor or the AI-proctoring software to view areas beyond the laptop/webcam feed coverage, providing an extra layer of security during virtual exams.
After the invigilator gains access to your examinations live remote proctoring video feed, one thing that misses in ensuring high-levels of exam integrity is the audio feed. Without any audio, the remote proctor is unable to monitor the background noise. Hence, this challenge is addressed using an AI-based audio proctoring software. An audio proctoring software scans the test-taker’s physical environment for additional sounds or noise using the microphone. It ascertains the differences between sounds that can and must not be in a testing environment. After a certain threshold limit, if an unnecessary sound continues, the software will flag it as a violation which will reflect in the candidate’s credibility index report.
We believe the previous chapter assuaged your concerns and established the uncanny similarities between face-to-face vs. online proctoring.
Moving forward, we realized that many of you have often asked, “what is the online proctoring system,” and what does it entail? What are its components? How does it function, etc.? Hence, we have outlined the technical working of the remote proctoring software in this chapter.
Even though proctoring is just like any other invigilation process with similar levels of accountability as in-person proctoring, the mechanism is rather distinct.
Here’s how a remote proctoring system operates:
After mining and analyzing data patterns and trends in test-takers’ behaviors, an AI algorithm is trained by experts to assist in online proctoring. The AI imbibes the information it sees just like a human proctor. This enables it to predict, flag and register even the minutest of discrepancies and suspicion.
For instance, Mercer | Mettl has a proprietary algorithm – the ‘Credibility Index’ – which is an excellent predictor, providing administrators with the most relevant results. Credibility Index auto-generates a report that highlights the test-takers’ integrity scores for a proctored session. Valuations are showcased as high, medium and low, allowing examiners to swiftly identify and filter out those who may have resorted to cheating.
How Is The Credibility Index Calculated?
The Credibility Index takes inputs from proctoring flags and the ‘test-finish’ status.
These flags and conditions are and not restricted to:
Online browsing tolerance (It indicates the number of times test-takers attempt cheating using on-screen aids such as opening unauthorized websites, accessing blacklisted software/third-party applications, enabling browsers and cheating tools.)
When enabled, online browsing tolerance locks test-takers’ test screens once they begin their remotely online proctored exam. This lockdown mode prevents them from opening new browser tabs/incognito tabs/windows. It blocks functions such as copying/pasting and restricts keys such as Alt+Tab/ Cmd+Tab/ 3-finger swipe. It also prevents access to secondary devices, such as cables, hard drives or external devices such as the USB or internet dongle, during the exam. If test-takers have already synced any such device before the test or attempt to sync them during the test, the AI will either not commence the test or immediately terminate it and log out the test-taker. The disabled external ports also prevent bypassing or illegal booting.
Thus far, we have conclusively established and detailed the background of online remote proctoring. Let us now understand how an educational institute looking to implement this remote technology, will go about it?
A remote proctoring software can be initiated in either of the two ways:
Let’s elucidate them for you.
This is applicable for institutes who do not have their own LMS or platform to conduct the examination. Hence, they will require both the platform and proctoring. In such a combination, the academia gets an end-to-end digital system where professors can set exams, schedule exams, manage candidate slotting, conduct exams and then deliver results. A dedicated admin dashboard shares detailed analytics and log and video recording of the entire process for anytime review. A complete suite of pre-configured proctoring technologies, is embedded in the platform offering a robust security mechanism.
Multiple vendors enable proctoring of exams, assessments, quizzes and remotely proctored certification exams effortlessly from various locations, across the globe on the platform. (Discussed in detail in Chapter 8)
For institutes who already have their own LMS or platform but need only a seamless layer of proctoring technology can get proctoring added as a service.
There are the two ways of integrating remote proctoring service onto any LMS or system:
a) By using LTI (Learning Tool Interoperability) extensions. For instance, Mercer | Mettl’s proctoring services are compatible with over 250 LTI compliant systems instantaneously.
With a single protocol, any platform can have its sophisticated Mettl Proctoring as a Service (MPaaS) software within minutes. MPaaS is already compatible and available on Canvas, Blackboard and Moodle via a Google Chrome Extension.
b) The other way is via deep integration. For instance, Mercer | Mettl will expose its REST APIs to integrate with any system and enable the proctoring services online. It takes up to a week or more for it to set up. Clients who require a custom proctoring workflow or have a Non-LTI LMS or web platform can opt for deep integration.
We genuinely believe that your curiosity about remote proctoring must have piqued by now. Hence, you ought to know about the diverse range of online remote proctoring software packages in the market that can help you secure your online remote exams. Our next chapter will bring you closer to the perfect solution for that impeccable test-giving experience.
The market today is replete with a myriad of proctoring service providers. These superlative providers are intensifying the competition and improving the processes concerning online exams with automation, standardization and efficiency. From those providing a state-of-the-art online proctoring platform, sophisticated online invigilation services to those sharing detailed student/candidate performance and diagnostic reports, how does one shortlist an end-to-end online proctoring software provider? Similarly, the proctoring purpose for an examiner is very different from an educator as well as a recruiter, so how does one make that critical distinction is the question.
Well, it’s simple. Choosing the best global proctoring systems provider depending on your requirement begins with understanding the top features needed in a remote proctoring system.
A practical rule of thumb is to stick to these three considerations to proctor exams:
A proctored exam taken from anywhere in the world should provide similar accountability levels as an in-person exam for test-takers. Hence, state-of-the-art anti-cheating tools to ensure strict invigilation online is critical. Any proctoring solution provider that you choose should have an AI-based algorithm capable of detecting dynamic digressions and suspicious cases with over 95% accuracy. From verifying each test-taker’s identity, disclosing non-visibility of the face/ presence, detecting mobile phones, an additional person’s presence, to catching a distracted eye movement – the best proctoring solution provider’s anti-cheating mechanisms should negate all possibilities of malpractices during a remote proctored exam. Additionally, the provider should also offer a secure browsing feature to eliminate concerns about on-screen remote proctored exam cheating.
Another feature that helps shortlist the best proctoring solution provider is the vendor’s ability to provide almost instantaneous proctoring integration with any LMS or hiring management system. This means once a proctoring software is integrated with the LMS or HMS, the proctoring platform will have a much-needed layer of invigilation, comprising credible anti-cheating features, insightful analysis and instantaneous report generation. This integration streamlines exams’ delivery and eliminates technical adaptability issues. Today, proctoring services are available as a Chrome plug-in-play, allowing exam administrators and faculty to customize and initiate proctored exams without leaving their environment.
Besides technical challenges, it is vital to maintain the examinations and the university’s integrity while ensuring proctoring’s sanctity. Hence, the remote proctoring solution provider you choose must provide automated, instantaneous and most relevant results. Whether a test-taker’s integrity report or an account of the score report, the remote proctoring software should be adept at sharing granular insights with real-time validation.
Now, based on the above information, we’ve listed the top seven remote proctoring system providers in the market.
Here is an interesting online remote proctoring system and software comparison table to help you make the right decision:
The COVID-19-induced disruption has had a pernicious impact on educational continuity, forcing universities and institutions globally to consider either suspending high-stakes national entrance, semester and recruitment tests or postponing their academic calendars. This would have had dire repercussions on students who were on the threshold of completing their education and about to commence their professional journeys. But the option of remote proctoring of online exams brought much clarity to the uncertain landscape as it addresses all educational continuity-related concerns. Without compromising safety and well-being, remote proctoring with its location-agnostic, robust anti-cheating features enabled universities and institutes to safeguard countless futures by conducting extremely secure online examinations with high integrity.
But, in case you assume that remote proctoring is best suited only for online exams, it’s time to change that perception. The truth is, proctoring applications are expanding at breakneck speed. In a not-so-distant-future, it would be difficult to undermine the benefits accorded by remote proctoring technology even by the most ardent votaries of pen-and-paper-based exams. Whether it is to streamline the workflow, ensure continuity or simply communicate, proctoring technologies are changing the way everyone works and interacts with one another.
Here are some extremely well-received use cases of online remote proctoring technology:
When shortlisting top talent, organizations can leverage live proctoring to test and evaluate multiple candidates by making them take an online assessment as a filtration process. While technical screening verifies each candidate’s fundamental and advanced skills, live proctoring ensures they do not indulge in untoward activities. Pre-employment assessments are beneficial as they do away with time-consuming interviews with applicants that are neither qualified nor suited for a particular position. This reduces the logistical inputs, reducing the cost and time-to-hire for the recruiters.
Apart from pre-employment remote proctoring assessments, companies can leverage the remote proctoring software for internal purposes, such as training needs identification, learning and development and skills gap analysis, etc.
At a time when work-from-home has become a norm, remotely monitoring thousands of employees is one of the foremost challenges facing the BPO industry. It is a challenge to gauge whether remote employees are working diligently. Subsequently, they also need to monitor employees’ performance to maintain their performance levels. Hence, organizations employ online remote proctoring technology that records all the activities of a person sitting in front of the computer screen by using the computer’s web camera. This reliable and resilient software solution makes the WFH scenario effortless and result-driven. Organizations can revisit the recorded video file, anytime, to ascertain employee behavior at a particular date and time.
Varied Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), offering digital learning programs by prominent institutes are available across multiple online learning platforms. Such courses have enabled significant student engagement, allowing them to acquire knowledge without considerations, such as their presence in the classrooms or physical distances. However, as the certification exams are online and attempted remotely, institutes can enable online remote proctoring with a robust anti-cheating invigilation mechanism to ensure those attempting the test can take their exam remotely, without resorting to unfair means. In such cases, experienced proctors are available round-the-clock to undertake proctoring across time zones. From attesting a test-taker’s authenticity to maintaining the quality and rigor offered in a center-based exam, remotely proctored exams provide a safe alternative to all.
Remote proctoring negates violations that undermine an organization’s prestige and legacy. It upholds the credibility of the on-the-job training certification or a candidate’s professional credential-related to upskilling or reskilling. It offers an unbiased testing experience with the utmost flexibility and security.
The government provides social welfare to its people, and various schemes and programs are designed to achieve them. Remote proctoring plays a crucial role in ensuring all of the above are administered quickly and easily with increased coverage and convenience. Let us explain this with an example where a company played a vital role in providing online remote proctoring solutions.
PMGDisha is a GoI initiative, with Mercer | Mettl as the technology partner. This program aims at digital literacy (how to create an account, how to transact using the internet, etc.), and assessments are conducted on Mercer | Mettl’s platform after the training, with remote online proctoring, to validate their learning.
You may be keen on deep-diving into a particular case that elucidates how remote online proctoring’s deployment enabled leading academia to regulate its educational landscape with a future roadmap.
Here are some quantitative examples that showcase the prowess of remote proctoring in maintaining educational and examination continuity, also safeguarding the sanctity of the examination initiative.
Mercer | Mettl helped IIMB proctor over 1.2 million learners spread across 190 countries.
Mercer | Mettl’s remote proctoring technology-enabled AIMA (the national apex body of the management profession in India) to give the prestigious MAT (Management Aptitude Test) online for 35000+ students across the country.
Mercer | Mettl’s platform and online proctoring solution ensured a successful and seamless online drive for Howard University’s National Competitive Fellowship Award amid the pandemic.
Unable to ask or find answers to questions on online proctoring? Well, if that’s hindering your transition, we’ve listed the answers to all the possible problems that online examiners, proctors and students have concerning remotely proctored exams, remotely proctored tests, or around the efficiency of online remote proctoring services, to name a few.
Ideally, once you get the hang of the remotely proctored test, you will not feel any change in experience or hassle in taking exams online.
A viable remote proctoring solution provider will have a sharper focus on regulations such as Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and ISO certification to strengthen data privacy. Databases, where the personal information, exam records and other sensitive details of test-takers and clients are gathered, are stored in an uncompromisable maximum security storage environment.
No, you cannot cheat in a remote online proctored exam. Leading online proctoring service providers offer stringent anti-cheating measures in remote proctoring tools, making it near impossible for assessees to indulge in malicious behavior. Mercer | Mettl’s online remote proctoring services negate remote proctoring cheating, ensuring that virtual remote exams occur in a secure environment.
A remote proctored internet-based test means that a remote proctored test mode requires a basic internet connection, a webcam and a microphone-supported computer to initiate a remote proctoring test.
A remote proctoring solution is one that enables academia to host safe virtual exams and allows students to take them from anywhere in the world, including their homes.
No, a remote proctor cannot see your screen during a remote proctoring test. But, the proctoring solutions provider does provide the proctor with tools that can restrict any on-screen activity. One such remote proctoring tool is Mercer | Mettl’s Mettl Secure Browser– which monitors an examinee’s screen and eliminates the possibility of remotely proctored cheating on the computer.
Yes, you have the freedom to take a proctored exam from home or any other place, provided it is a complacent environment free from fraud.
Yes, online tests are capable of detecting cheating if they are undertaken using proctoring technology. The right proctoring tool integrated with state-of-the-art technology will efficiently detect as well as predict cheating.
So this is our complete guide book on online remote proctoring.
We believe that this handy piece offered you clarity and negated your concerns, preparing you to confidently embrace the future of examinations.
Now let’s turn it over to you.
What did you think about this guide?
What piques your interest the most when it comes to online proctoring?
Is there something you’d like us to include? Let us know by leaving a comment below.
Originally published December 4 2019, Updated July 19 2021
Shirisha has been helping countless brands gain traction with her content. Her deep understanding of the education sector and sound knowledge of technical skills have helped her structure the most creative solutions for key stakeholders. Shirisha has also ghosted pieces for several industry honcho’s successfully published both online and offline. When she's not keeping up with the world, you're sure to find her catching up on bollywood stories or gramming for fun.